A demand chain can be created around or for an entire industry under the auspices of a customer-centric leader, typically self-appointed. Originating a mortgage loan involves over 1200 steps and up to fifteen intermediaries. On-line exchanges such as Lending Tree permit borrowers to attract and closely compare multiple lenders with a high degree of transparency. Such exchanges can also orchestrate or at least track the various players such as title insurers and home appraisers necessary to close. Such an approach is considered in detail in The Elastic Enterprise by Haydn Shaughnessy and Nicholas Vitalari.